“Resolution was something more than a resolution. It was a declaration, a firm resolve, a pledge, an undertaking and for all of us a dedication.”
The Indian Constitution represents the aims and aspirations of the makers of the Indian Constitution. However, the making of every constitution requires a start, i.e. a philosophy. The Objective Resolutions provided the much-needed philosophy of the Indian Constitution and inspired in the shaping of the Indian Constitution.
“The Objectives Resolution, 1946” was introduced by Jawaharlal Nehru in the very first session of the Constitution Assembly. Basically, these resolutions were the aspirations of people who were making the Constitution.
It can be considered as the preamble of the vast dream, which the constitution makers sought to achieve after the independence in the form of a new India. And these resolutions were framed as the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
What were the Objectives Resolution?
These resolutions were moved on 13th December by Jawaharlal Nehru. Further, these resolutions were adopted on 22nd January, 1947 by the assembly. The summary of these resolutions is as follows-
- India is an independent, sovereign, republic.
- India shall be a Union of erstwhile British Indian territories, Indian States, and other parts outside British India and Indian States as are willing to be a part of the Union.
- Territories forming the Union shall be autonomous units and exercise all powers and functions of the Government and administration, except those assigned to or vested in the Union
- All powers and authority of sovereign and independent India and its constitution shall flow from the people
- All people of India shall be guaranteed and secured social, economic and political justice; equality of status and opportunities and equality before law; and fundamental freedoms – of speech, expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action – subject to law and public morality.
- The minorities, backward and tribal areas, depressed and other backward classes shall be provided adequate safeguards.
- The territorial integrity of the Republic and its sovereign rights on land, sea and air shall be maintained according to justice and law of civilized nation.
- The land would make full and willing contribution to the promotion of world peace and welfare of mankind.
Why were these resolutions adopted by the constituent Assembly?
The Indian Preamble is based upon these resolutions, which can easily be seen in the preamble.
The President of the Constituent Assemble, Dr. Rajendra Prasad told all the assembly, that they must adopt this resolution without any second thought. And asked all the members to vote for it, to adopt the things said and written in the resolution. The resolution was thus adopted with complete majority.
Again, on 17th October, 1949, the Constituent Assembly thought to discuss on the preamble. A member of the assembly, Hasrat Mohani suggested that instead of “a Sovereign Democratic Republic”, it must be made, “a Union of India Socialist Republics”. This was objected by another member saying that doing so would be antithesis to the very constitution they had passed.
Similar to this, there were many discussions about what should be included in the Preamble and what should not be. But same as everything, the baseline to decide was these resolutions, which were introduced in the very first session.
The major reason behind the adoption of these resolutions in form of the preamble was, that these resolutions encompassed the clear thoughts of the constitution makers. It contained very explicitly, that what kind of India is required after the independence, therefore the Constituent assemble after some slight changes, adopted these resolutions as the Preamble of Worlds biggest Constitution.
The purpose of these resolutions was to show a future picture of the India. It told the assembly that what should be the situation of country and what qualities must be provided to those people who have lots of hopes from this constitution. The constitution was made by the few people who were present in the assembly, but it was the constitution of every Indian. We the people of India…… tells a long story that the constitution has, to become the aspiration of many Indians. And this story was started by these resolutions, which landed as the world famous Preamble of this country.