Subjects >>English >>BASIC ENGLISH

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INTRODUCTION
27 Jul 2020

English is a subject of language. And like any other language, there are basic rules of grammar that needs to be followed while learning any language.

To learn English, the three basic requirements are:

  1. Know the Basic Rules of the English Grammar
  2. Learn as much vocabulary as possible.
  3. Practice, practice and practice.

In this course, we are going to build your concepts for a strong hold on English. And apart from that, we will provide a lot of questions for thorough practice.

Phrase

It is a group of words that have meaning. Or It is a group of related words.


Example: in the corner;

                 on the roof;

                 in the room

                 to eat dinner

Clause

A clause is a group of related words that contains a subject and verb.  Independent clause – it is a complete sentence; can stand alone by itself.  Dependent (subordinate) clause – it expresses only a part of thought; it cannot stand alone as a sentence. It is a group of words that forms a part of a sentence and has a subject and a finite verb of its own. Note: The number of finite verbs in a sentence joined by conjunctions determines the number of clauses. How to find the type of Clause? Clause can form a part of sentence or it could be a complete sentence in itself. Example: Sita had a long career but she is remembered mainly for her early work. • The above sentence has 2 clauses. Clause 1: Sita had a long career. • Clause 2: But she is remembered mainly for her early work. Every sentence contains at least one main clause. Main Clause • A main clause then may form a part of Complex or Compound sentences. • But it also makes sense on its own. Example: Varun was eating a hot dog. Main Clause Subordinate Clause • A subordinate clause depends on a main clause for its meaning. • Together with main clause, a subordinate clause forms a part of a Complex sentence.

Sentence

A sentence is an independent clause that may or may not be combined with other clauses to convey a complete and sometimes complex thought.

Or

It is a group of words that has a definite meaning and contains a Subject and Finite verb.

Example: He is in the corner;

                She is on the roof;

                father was in the room

Structure of Sentences

  1. Simple Sentence
  2. Compound Sentence
    • Two or more main clause connected using Coordinate Conjunctions.
  3. Complex Sentence  
    • Principal Clause is connected with one or more subordinate clause using subordinate conjunction.

 

How to find the ‘Subject’?

Verb + who? Will answer the Subject

 

How to find the ‘Object’?

Verb + What? or Whom? Will answer the Object.

Object

Direct Object

  • Verb + What?

Indirect Object

  • Verb + Whom?

 

Generally, an Indirect object comes before a Direct object.

If a direct object comes before indirect object, then it is mandatory to put – ‘to’, ‘of’ or ‘for’ before Indirect object.

Types of Sentences

  1. Assertive
    1. Affirmative
      • Subject + Verb + Object
      • Subject + Helping Verb + Main Verb + Object
    2. Negative
      • Subject + Helping Verb + Not + Main Verb + Object
  2. Interrogative
    1. Yes/No
      • Helping Verb + Subject + Main Verb + Object?
      • Not before Main Verb in Negative sentences.
      • Example: Do you know his name?
    2. Descriptive
      • Wh + Helping Verb + Subject + Main Verb + Object?
      • Wh – Wh family words.
      • Not before main verb
      • Example: Why do you not play well?
    3. Imperative
      • Starts with First form of Verb – Come here
      • Starts with Let – Let me go
      • Starts with Don’t – Don’t talk in the class
    4. Exclamatory
      • !
      • We won the match!
    5. Optative
      • Starts with ‘May’ – Bless or Curse
      • May god bless you.

 

 

Parts of the Sentence

Subject

Predicate

Qualifier

(Enlargement)

Main Word

Or

Head Word

Verb

Object

Complement

  • Determiner
  • Adjective
  • Adjective Phrase

Direct Object

Indirect Object

 

Tips

  • The subject of a sentence will Never be in a prepositional phrase.
  • There is a Subject and Verb on both sides of the Conjunction and Semicolon.
  • Direct Object: non-living
  • Indirect Object: Living